Lectures

  • 2019

Lecture course ‘Methods for Materials Diagnostics 2019-20’ is intended for students in all study programs provided by IEE SAS and will be given in English.
More info can be found in the attached file.

Contact: milan.tapajna@savba.sk

Syllabus:

Structure of materials and X-ray diffraction analysis (E. Dobročka)

1. Introduction. Non-crystalline state. Hard-Sphere models, Random-Walk models, Fractal models. [Download]
2. Crystalline state. Symmetry, symmetry operations, space lattice, unit cell, primitive cell. Miller indices, crystallographic symbols. Crystallography in two dimensions. [Download] [Download_Lecture3]
Crystallography in three dimensions. Crystal systems, Bravais lattices, point groups, space groups. [Download_Lecture4] [Download_Manual]
3. Symmetry and the properties of crystals. Neumann, Curie and Voigt principles.
Examples of structures. Imperfections in crystals and their experimental observation. Point defects, dislocations, stacking faults. [Download Lecture5] [Download Lecture6]
4. Diffraction methods. Laue equations, reciprocal lattice, Ewald construction, Bragg equation. Diffraction indices, atomic form factor, structure factor, intensity of diffracted radiation. [Download Lecture7]
5. Basic X-ray diffraction experiments, Debye-Scherrer method, Laue method, X-ray diffractometry. Bragg-Brentano set-up, double axis and triple axis diffractometry.
Imaging methods, X-ray topography. [Download Lecture8]

Electrical characterization of semiconductor structures (M. Ťapajna)

6. Introduction to semiconductors. PN junction in the equilibrium, IV characteristic, secondary effects (generation-recombination, strong injection, breakdown). Analysis of CV characteristics, measurement of built-in potential, carrier concentration profiling in abrupt PN junctions. Determination of minority carrier lifetime.
7. Schottky contact, transport properties, IV characteristic, CV characteristic, carrier concentration profiling. Review of models describing Metal-Semiconductor contact (non-interacting, interacting, concept of charge neutrality level). Ohmic contacts characterisation.
8. MOS structure, depletion approximation, ‘ideal’ and real MOS structure, CV curve.
Measurement of the metal work function and fixed oxide charge. Review of methods for evaluation of oxide/semiconductor interface states density.

Scanning electron microscopy – SEM (J. Šoltýs)

9. Design and basic principle of electron microscopes (SEM), interaction of electron with sample surface. Types of SEM and its regimes, sample preparation, image adjustment and optimization. Additional options for SEM. Electron beam lithography.

Elemental analysis using characteristic X-rays in SEM – EDS a WDS (A. Rosová)

10. Characteristic X-ray emission, beam interaction volume, EDS and WDS – principles and comparison, measurement artefacts and errors, resolution and sensitivity, choice of optimized experiment parameters, qualitative and quantitative analysis, ZAF method, thin film analysis

Transmission electron microscopy – TEM (A. Rosová)

11. Why TEM – resolution, aberrations, advantages and limits. Elastic and inelastic electron interactions in thin foils, kinematical theory of electron diffraction, information from selected area electron diffraction patterns, creation of imaging contrasts, different imaging techniques, elemental analysis in TEM, Thin specimen preparation

Scanning probe microscopy – SPM (J. Šoltýs)

12. STM and AFM principle, basic modes, hardware, AFM probes, data processing nontopographic modes, artefacts in AFM images. AFM surface modification and lithography.

  • 2018

A lecture course of prof. Martin Mosko

Selected chapters from statistical physics and solid-state physics

starts on October 11th